Kazakhstan is a state located in the center of Eurasia, south of the Ural Mountains. In the south-west it is washed by the Caspian Sea. Here, antiquity and modernity, eastern traditions and Western modernism intertwined in an unusual way. The boundless southern steppes, mountains and lakes, the Great Silk Road and the Baikonur Spaceport are all Kazakhstan.
The capital is Astana. The largest city with a population of more than 1.8 million people is Alma-Ata. The official language is Kazakh. The official language which is used in the country along with the state language is Russian.
The largest of the former Soviet republics, Kazakhstan is also the ninth largest country in the world, very rich in natural resources. From the moment of gaining independence, the country's development is proceeding really fast. At the same time, there is an untouched nature of Kazakhstan: deserts, ancient cities, and beautiful landscapes.
List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Republic of Kazakhstan:
- Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi
- Petroglyphs within the Archaeological Landscape of Tamgaly
- Saryarka — Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan
- Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor
- Western Tien-Shan
1. Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi
Khodzha Akhmed Yasavi Mausoleum is a mausoleum on the grave of poet and preacher Khoja Ahmed Yasavi, located in the city of Turkestan in the South Kazakhstan region of Kazakhstan. It is the central object on the territory of the historical and cultural museum-reserve "Khazret-sultan".
Khoja Ahmed Yasavi died in 1166 (67) and was buried in a small mausoleum, which later became a place of mass pilgrimage for Muslims around the world. Visiting this mausoleum three times equated Hajj to Mecca. Now the existing mausoleum was erected 233 years after his death.
The mausoleum of Yasawi consists of a huge, rectangular building with portals and domes. Around the central hall there are more than 35 rooms. The door of the tomb is decorated with beautiful carvings on ivory and wood.
2. Petroglyphs within the Archaeological Landscape of Tamgaly
Petroglyphs of the archaeological landscape of Tamgaly is one of the most ancient and vivid monuments of the Semirechie. Here in the late 1950s a sanctuary with a large number of rock paintings was discovered, its study began in the 1970s and 1980s. Tamgaly is located 170 km north-west of the city of Alma-Ata in the mountains of Anrakay.
Most of the petroglyphs are located in the lower part of the main canyon. The total number of drawings in the main gorge is about 2000. There are images of sun-headed deities, mummers, married couples, women in childbirth, and multi-figure compositions depicting people and animals, animal hunting scenes and bulls sacrifice scenes. In addition to petroglyphs, a large number of ancient burials were discovered in Tamgaly: stone boxes-cysts of the middle and late Bronze Age, mounds from the earth and stones from the early Iron Age to the present.
3. Saryarka — Steppe and Lakes of Northern Kazakhstan
Saryarka is the first natural World Heritage Site in Kazakhstan and Central Asia. The site consists of two reserves located in the steppe zone of Kazakhstan - Korgalzhyn and Naurzum, with a total area of 450 344 hectares. The facility includes two groups of lakes with fresh and salt water located on the watershed separating the rivers that flow north to the Arctic and south to the Aral-Irtysh basin. They are important stopping places for millions of migratory birds that migrate annually from Africa, India and southern Europe to nesting sites in Western and Eastern Siberia.
These wetlands support populations of globally endangered species such as Siberian Crane, pink flamingo, white-tailed eagle, curly pelican, etc. 200 thousand hectares of the distinctive Central Asian steppe that became part of the Site are the habitat of more half of the steppe flora of the region.
4. Silk Roads: the Routes Network of Chang'an-Tianshan Corridor
The object is a 5000-kilometer part of the vast system of the Great Silk Road, stretching from Chang'an and Luoyang to the Zhetysu (Semirechye) region in Central Asia. This system was formed between the II c. BC and I c. AD and was used until the 16th century, combining many civilizations and providing an active interchange in trade, religious beliefs, scientific knowledge, technical innovations, cultural activities and the arts. 33 components of the facility (22 of them in China, 8 in Kazakhstan and 3 in Kyrgyzstan) included in the network of roads include capital cities, complexes of palaces of different empires and khanates, shopping settlements, Buddhist cave temples, ancient ways, postal items, passes, lighthouse towers, stretches of the Great Wall of China, fortifications, burials and religious buildings.
5. Western Tien-Shan
This cross-border facility is a part of the Central Asian mountain system of Tien Shan, one of the seven largest mountain ranges in the world. The height of various parts of the western Tien Shan ranges from 700 to 4503 meters. This object is replete with a variety of landscapes, which are characterized by exceptionally rich biodiversity. The western Tien-Shan region has a global importance, because it is the origin of a number of species of fruit trees and it is distinguished by a great variety of forest types and unique flora.
Press service of the Committee
of the Republic Bashkortostan